2021-22 Catalogs

125 Jesse Hall
Columbia, MO 65211
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College of Arts and Science

Administration

Pat Okker, Dean
Cooper Drury, Senior Associate Dean
Nicole Monnier, Associate Dean for Undergraduate Studies
J. Chris Pires, Associate Dean for Research
Stephanie Shonekan, Associate Dean for Faculty Development, Graduate Studies, Inclusive Culture

Arts and Science Dean’s Office
317 Lowry Hall
(573) 882-4421

Contact Information

Arts and Science Advising Support Services
107 Lowry Hall
(573) 882-6411
umcasadvising@missouri.edu

Established in 1841, the College of Arts and Science is the oldest and largest academic division in the university. The College offers over 50 undergraduate and graduate programs in humanities, fine and performing arts, and social, behavioral and natural sciences. It also provides general education and foundational courses for students across all of the MU schools, colleges, and divisions, as well as support for professional and specialized programs in other academic units. In addition to offering degrees in a wide range of academic disciplines, the College offers two individualized baccalaureate degrees, Interdisciplinary Studies and General Studies. Both degrees allow students to create a program that combines coursework across two or three areas to support personal academic and career interests that may not be met through a traditional major. 

A liberal education is the foundation of study in many disciplines. It enables students to serve roles in society or to continue their education with advanced academic study. To these ends, the college encourages excellence in teaching and scholarship among its faculty and provides both traditional and innovative undergraduate curricula. Degree programs allow flexibility in individual courses of study.

Many students who enroll in the college during their first two years at the University have not yet decided upon a major field of study or are exploring additional majors, minors, or certificates. The structure of many of our degrees allows for exploration in the first three to four semesters. This gives students time to consider their likes and dislikes and their personal and professional objectives. Students are encouraged to work closely with academic advisors while deciding on their primary program of study as well as potential minors and certificates within and outside of the College.

College of Arts and Science Requirements: Overview

To earn any degree from the College of Arts and Science, a candidate must not only meet all the relevant university requirements (specified elsewhere in the Catalog) but also each of the following College requirements:

  • Complete all course work required for the Arts and Science Foundation Requirements (Basic Skills, Breadth of Study, Depth of Study).
  • Complete requirements for a major in the College with grades of C- or higher.
  • Earn sufficient elective credits to bring the total number of earned credits to 120.
  • Earn a minimum of 30 credits in courses numbered 3000 or above, which may include courses in the major. These courses must be regularly accepted for credit in the College of Arts and Science. A few specifically identified math, science, and music courses numbered at the 2000-level may be used to meet this requirement; please consult an advisor.
  • Completion of a course that meets the college’s diversity (DI) requirement.
  • Maintain a minimum cumulative GPA of 2.0 in courses taken at MU.
  • Maintain a minimum GPA of 2.0 in courses taken at MU to meet requirements for the major.

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College Foundation Requirements

The A&S Foundation Requirements are comprised of the university general education requirements together with additional College and degree-specific requirements and/or courses.

Additional College requirements by degree:

  • Diversity Intensive requirement (3 hours): all A&S undergraduate degrees*
  • An additional 3 hours of coursework at the 2000+ (depth of study): all BA degrees, BS Biological Sciences, BS Psychology; BGS
  • Second language requirement (12 hours); for BS degrees, there is a second language alternative track (12 hours)**
  • Additional 3 hours of humanities in a third disciplinary area (breadth of study): all BA degrees, BS Biological Sciences, BS Psychology
  • Additional 6 hours of social and behavioral sciences (breadth of study): all BA degrees, BS Biological Sciences, BS Psychology
    • Separation of social science (9 hours) and behavioral sciences (6 hours)
  • Additional 3 hrs 1000+ in BIO, PHYS, MATH, BEH, SOC, HUM, FA (breadth of study): BGS

Note: Courses in the primary major may not be used in fulfillment of A&S Foundation Requirements.*** However, courses from a second A&S major or any minor may be used. All A&S-specific distribution requirements must be met with A&S coursework.

*The Diversity Intensive course requirement may also be met with coursework in the major, minor, certificate, etc.

**Exception: BM Music Ed, BFA, and BGS

***Exception: courses within the BM major are allowed in the A&S Foundations

The purpose of the Arts and Science Foundation Requirements is to assure that students fulfill the common educational objectives of the College of Arts and Science. Courses satisfying these requirements impart specialized knowledge and help students fulfill the broader objectives of a liberal education. Thus, these courses help students develop the following abilities:

  • To communicate clearly and effectively in both writing and speech
  • To generate and test hypotheses
  • To locate and develop information needed to solve problems
  • To think critically and use analytic skills effectively
  • To examine their lives critically and objectively
  • To enrich their lives through appreciation of present and past cultural achievements

Foundation requirements include three categories:

  • Basic Skills requirements ensure competency in composition and communication, mathematics and analytic reasoning, awareness of American history and government, and where applicable, a second language.
  • Breadth of Study requirements are met by completing course work from a wide array of disciplines to ensure that graduates are broadly educated.
  • Depth of Study requirements are met by completing advanced coursework that allows for fuller understanding of a discipline than can be gained in introductory course work alone.

All students must complete all Arts and Science Foundation Requirements in order to earn a degree, regardless of prior baccalaureate degrees earned. Previous course work will be evaluated on a course-by-course basis. For students who earn an Associates of Arts degree from a regionally accredited Missouri institution, all Breadth of Study requirements will be considered to be met. Students will be required to complete at least one Depth of Study class with MU course work. In all cases, completion of the basic English and Mathematics requirements will be evaluated on a course-by-course basis.

Basic Skills

MATH 1100MATH 1160, MATH 1050STAT 1200 or transferable equivalent with grade of C- or higher

  • Required for BA, BFA, BGS, BM and BS degrees.
  • Majors may require specific course(s) to meet this requirement.

ENGLSH 1000 or transferable equivalent with grade of C- or higher

  • Required for BA, BFA, BGS, BM and BS degrees.

One course in American government or history (per university General Education Requirement)

  • Required for BA, BFA, BGS, BM and BS degrees.
  • May also apply as a social science toward the behavioral and social science requirement.
  • Should be chosen from the list of MU courses approved to meet Arts and Science Foundation Requirements.

Second language other than English

Students earning BA, BS, and BM degrees (except Music Education) are required to attain the degree of proficiency equivalent to the completion of at least 12 hours of college-level work in a single language other than English. All MU second language programs require a grade of C- or higher in levels I of a language and level II of a language as prerequisites for level II and III, respectively.

  • Courses used towards fulfillment of the A&S second language requirement may not also be used towards Foundation distribution requirements.
  • Alternative for selected BS degrees: 12 credits numbered 2000 or above in an area approved by the major department substituted with the concurrence of the dean’s office. 

There are three categories of students who may meet the A&S language requirement by demonstrating proficiency in a language other than English outside of college coursework:

1. Student who have completed four years of world language instruction in a single language in high school. This must be officially recorded on the student's high school transcript.

  • If a student chooses to meet the requirement by using high school units, any college credit for the same introductory language will not count towards graduation hours (i.e., a student who has completed 4 units of high school Spanish and has credit for  SPAN 1100 will not have the SPAN 1100 count towards graduation hours). If a student wants to have the introductory college credit count towards graduation, they must complete the language sequence.

2. International students whose native language is other than English;

3. Non-international students who can demonstrate proficiency at the mid-intermediate level or higher in a language other than English. 

  • If the student is proficient in a language offered at MU: the student may be evaluated by that language program. The evaluation must test the student’s ability in all the modalities appropriate for that language (reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking) at the mid-intermediate or higher as defined by ACTFL proficiency guidelines. Upon verification of proficiency level, the language program will notify the A&S academic advising office. 
  • If the student is proficient in a language not offered at MU: the student is responsible for finding a qualified examiner in that language, who must then be approved by the A&S undergraduate dean. The evaluation must test the student’s ability in all the modalities appropriate for that language (reading, writing, listening, and/or speaking) at the mid-intermediate level or higher as defined by ACTFL proficiency guidelines. For approval form, contact the A&S Advising Support Center at umcasadvising@missouri.edu 

Note: students who meet the A&S language requirement under one of these three conditions will not receive advanced standing credit. Advanced standing credit may be available for students who complete language coursework at MU beyond the elementary sequence. For more information, please contact the appropriate MU language program.

Breadth of Study

Breadth of Study requirements include course work distributed among the following categories: biological, physical and mathematical sciences; behavioral and social sciences; humanities and fine arts.

  1. Biological, physical and mathematical sciences
    9 credits required for BA, BFA, BGS, BM and BS degrees.
    • Must include course work from at least two of three areas.
    • Must include at least one biological or physical science laboratory course.
  2. Behavioral and social sciences
    9 credits required for BFA, BGS, BM and BS degrees (except for the BS degree with majors in Biological Sciences and Psychology).
    • Must include course work from both the behavioral and social sciences.
    • 15 credits required for all BA degrees and the BS degree with majors in Biological Sciences and Psychology.
      • Must include 6 credits of behavioral science.
      • Must include 9 credits of social science, including course work from at least two different areas.
      • Must include 6 credits of coursework in an A&S discipline.
  3. Humanities and fine arts
    9 credits required for the BFA, BGS, BM and BS degrees (except for the BS degree with majors in Biological Sciences and Psychology).
  • Must include course work from at least two different areas.
  • 12 credits required for the BA degree, and the BS degree with majors in Biological Sciences and Psychology.
    • Must include course work from at least three different areas.
    • Must include 3 credits of coursework in an A&S discipline.
  1. Additional breadth requirement for the BGS degree
    3 credits from course work chosen from any of the following four categories: biological, physical and mathematical sciences; behavioral sciences; social sciences; humanities and fine arts.
    • Must include 3 credits of coursework in an A&S discipline.

Parameters for meeting Breadth of Study requirements:

  • Courses from the major department may not be used for breadth requirements in the BA, BFA and BS.
  • Courses from the major department may be used for breadth requirements in the BM.
  • Students earning degrees in special degree programs (where the courses in the major represent multiple departments) may use courses from their major departments to meet breadth requirements, but not the specific courses used in the major.
  • Courses must be chosen from the Distribution of Content List on the web site of the General Education Program. (http://generaleducation.missouri.edu.)
  • Courses used to meet breadth requirements may also be used to meet depth requirements (see below).
  • Problems, research, readings, and internship courses may not be used for breadth requirements.

Depth of Study

Depth of Study requirements include at least 6 hours of course work numbered 2000 or above, distributed as follows:

BFA in Art

  • 6 credits required (minimum of 2 courses).
  • Must include course work from at least two of the following four breadth categories: biological, physical, mathematical sciences; behavioral sciences; social sciences; humanities and fine arts.

BGS in General Studies, all BA degrees, and BS with majors in Biological Sciences and Psychology

  • 9 credits required (minimum of 3 courses).
  • Must include course work from at least two of the following four breadth categories: biological, physical and mathematical sciences; behavioral sciences; social sciences; humanities and fine arts.
  • Three hours (one course) of Arts and Science coursework must be used towards partial fulfillment of the depth of study requirement.

BS with majors in Chemistry, Geological Science, Mathematics, Physics and Statistics

  • 6 credits required (minimum of 2 courses).
  • Must include course work from at least two of the following three breadth categories: biological, physical, mathematical science; behavioral and social science; humanities and fine arts. 

BS with a major in Economics

  • 6 credits required (minimum of 2 courses).
  • Must include course work from at least two of the following three breadth categories: biological, physical and mathematical sciences; behavioral and social science; humanities and fine arts.

BS with a major in Philosophy

  • 6 credits required (minimum of 2 courses).
  • Must include course work from at least two of the following three breadth categories: biological, physical and mathematical sciences; behavioral and social sciences; humanities and fine arts.

BM with a major in Music

  • 6 credits required (minimum of 2 courses).
  • Must include course work from at least one of the following three breadth categories: biological, physical and mathematical sciences; behavioral sciences; social sciences.
  • 3 credit hours in Music (see below).

Parameters for Meeting Depth of Study Requirements

  • All courses must be numbered 2000 or above.
  • At least 3 credits must be completed with MU course work.
  • A student who elects 1-credit topics courses must complete a minimum of three courses in that breadth category as partial fulfillment of the depth of study requirement.
  • Courses from the major department may not be used, except for the BM with a major in Music.
  • Students earning degrees in special degree programs (where the courses in the major represent multiple departments) may use courses from their major departments to meet depth requirements, but not the specific courses used in the major.
  • Courses must be chosen from the Distribution of Content List on the website of the General Education Program.
  • Courses used to meet depth requirements may also be used to meet breadth requirements.
  • Problems, research, readings, and internship courses may not be used.

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Requirements for Major

A major consists of at least 21 credits, including at least 15 credits in courses numbered 2000 or above, 12 of which must be taken in MU course work. See detailed departmental information for additional requirements for specific majors.

All Arts and Science majors require an MU Writing Intensive course numbered 3000 or above and an MU capstone course with grades of C- or higher. In addition, some majors require course work outside the major department.

Each student must declare and receive official approval for a major by submitting a graduation plan no later than the semester after completion of 60 credits. The purpose of the graduation plan is to acquaint students with all requirements that must be met prior to graduation and to plan for the timely completion of these requirements. Departments and programs approve the graduation plan only when the student has met the following criteria:

  • Completion of any additional departmental requirements

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Requirements for an Optional Minor

A minor consists of at least 15 credits, including at least 6 credits numbered 2000 or above, within a department or program that offers a minor; 9 of the required credits must be taken in MU course work. This requirement can be reduced from 9 to 6 at the discretion of an individual department. See detailed departmental information for additional requirements for specific minors. Courses outside the major department but required for the major may be used towards a minor. In addition, courses required in the minor may be used to meet Foundation requirements.

The College of Arts and Science awards minors only to undergraduate students who are simultaneous recipients of bachelor’s degrees. Students may not earn a major and a minor in the same field.

Students must meet the minimum GPA requirements for a minor, which in no case can be lower than 2.0. In addition, a student cannot receive a grade lower than a C- in any course applied towards a minor in the College.

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Requirements for an Optional Certificate

A certificate consists of at least 12 credits which must be taken in MU course work. See detailed information for additional requirements for specific certificates. Courses required for a certificate may be used to meet major, minor or Foundation requirements.

Students may not earn a certificate and a minor in the same field.

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Double Majors

A number of Arts and Science students choose to complete multiple majors while earning one degree. The requirements of each major, along with requirements for the degree, must be completed. Often, this does not result in the addition of hours to the degree program.

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Dual Degrees

In order to receive two bachelor’s degrees, a student must complete a minimum of 132 credits and complete all of the specific requirements for both degrees. Normally, a minimum of one additional semester is required to earn both degrees. Each candidate for a dual degree is assigned advisors as appropriate.

The College of Arts and Science maintains dual-degree programs with the schools of Law, Medicine and Veterinary Medicine. To enroll in these programs, the student must have completed all of the specific course requirements for the bachelor’s degree prior to admission to the professional school and also must have completed the junior year in residence in the College of Arts and Science. Under certain circumstances, Arts and Science undergraduates may be assured admission to MU’s schools of Law or Medicine.

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Second Degrees

The faculty of the college has approved the following guidelines for students wishing to obtain a second undergraduate degree after completion of a bachelor's degree, in addition to any university requirements that may apply:

  • A student must complete any college, general education or department requirements that are unique to the new degree program. Requirements that are in effect at the time a student begins work toward the second degree are applicable.
  • Students applying for second-degree status will be considered only if they have final term and cumulative GPAs no less than 2.0.
  • The student must submit a graduation plan in consultation with an advisor in an appropriate department or program before the dean’s office will approve a request from the student to enroll as a candidate for a second degree.
  • With the exception of Interdisciplinary Studies majors with an emphasis in Black Studies, Peace Studies, or Women's and Gender Studies, the college does not approve applications for a second undergraduate degree in General Studies or Interdisciplinary Studies.
  • A student who has earned a degree in Interdisciplinary Studies (excluding those with emphasis areas in Black Studies, Environmental Studies, Peace Studies, or Women's and Gender Studies) or General Studies may not pursue a second degree in a field that was used as a component of the first degree.
  • Once enrolled for a second degree, a student is committed to enrolling in course work required for completion of that degree. A student will not be allowed to continue as a candidate for a second undergraduate degree if not enrolled in courses required for the second bachelor’s degree.

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Graduate Dual Enrollment

Juniors and seniors may be able to dually enroll in the College of Arts and Science and the Office of Graduate Studies with permission of the deans of both divisions. This enables the student to complete some graduate course work prior to receiving the bachelor’s degree.

Application forms for dual enrollment in these two schools may be obtained from the Office of Graduate Studies in 210 Jesse Hall. For more information on requirements, please refer to the following website.  

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Credit Restrictions

Maximum Credits Enrolled 

With the consent of the dean, students with superior scholastic records may be allowed to register for more than 18 credits during a fall or spring semester. During the summer sessions, a student may not ordinarily be enrolled for more than 9 credits during the two four-week sessions combined and/or the eight-week session. Students wishing to enroll in credit hours above the maximum allowable hours may appeal to do so here.

Other Maximum Credit Policies

With the exception of MATH 1100 (or equivalent), ENGLSH 1000 (or equivalent), and the elementary sequence in a second language, the maximum number of credits from a single department or program that may apply toward graduation is 54 for the BA and the BGS, 70 for the BFA, and 90 for the BM.

Courses Forming a Sequence

Credit for a more advanced course within a sequence will not apply toward graduation if a student subsequently completes a less advanced course. (For example: completion of FRENCH 1200 after FRENCH 2100 or completion of MATH 1100 after MATH 1300.)

Enrolling at Other Institutions

Students within the College of Arts & Science are allowed to enroll in another institution while being simultaneously enrolled at MU. Students are strongly encouraged to speak with an advisor to verify course transfer credit, degree applicability and other academic ramifications. Students, however, bear the ultimate responsibility for checking course equivalencies and requesting official transcripts be sent to the MU Office of Admissions (230 Jesse Hall). Similarly, A&S students who are likely to qualify for Latin honors are advised not to risk their eligibility for this distinction because of simultaneous enrollment at another institution (see information on Latin honors). Students who receive financial aid are advised to check with a financial aid officer to learn the implications, if any, of simultaneous enrollment in a non-MU course.

Time Limit on Credits Earned

Credit that is applied toward a degree is considered valid for eight years. After that time, the validity of credit already on the transcript will be reevaluated. Departments of the college have the right to accept or to reject credit earned after eight years have passed.

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Advising

Students who have declared a major are assigned an advisor in that department. Students who have not yet decided on a major are assigned to a professional advisor in the Student Success Center.

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Dean's List and College Honors

A&S students who have earned a minimum 3.25 term GPA in twelve or more graded (A-F) hours and have a cumulative MU GPA of a 3.0 are placed on the A&S Dean's List for that semester.

Regulations of the college regarding the awarding of Latin honors require that 54 of the final 60 credits are completed as MU course work for a letter grade (A-F). Thus, up to 6 of the final 60 credits may be taken as S/U. Exception: courses taken S/U during Spring 2020 will not count towards this 6-credit limit but are otherwise included towards the final 60 hours. Awarding of Latin honors is based on the cumulative GPA: 3.7 to 3.799 is Cum Laude; 3.8 to 3.899 is Magna Cum Laude; and 3.9 to 4.0 is Summa Cum Laude. Note that the Office of the University Registrar does not round these numbers up.

Many, but not all, departments have established criteria for earning honors in the major. Those requirements are listed under the major page.  Students must have a minimum cumulative MU GPA of a 3.25 to be eligible for honors in the major.

The local chapter of Phi Beta Kappa requires completion of a minimum of 60 credits of course work on the MU campus, usually during the last two years of study. Exceptions to this latter expectation may be made for students who study abroad in an approved program during their final semesters of study.

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Probation and Dismissal

Academic (Scholastic) Standing

In addition to University requirements defined in the Academic Standing section of this catalog and in the Faculty Handbook, the academic status of Arts and Science students is determined in accordance with the following faculty guidelines. Semester-based, self-paced, intersession, summer and extension coursework all have a bearing on academic status.

  • Students on scholastic probation have two semesters (as long as each semester GPA is no lower than 1.0) in which to attain good academic standing (2.0 minimum term and cumulative GPA) or be subject to dismissal.
  • A student on probation may not be allowed to participate in a study abroad program or internship opportunities, though this may be appealed.
  • In the application of these rules, the dean will determine how an incomplete grade in a course will be considered in determining a student’s academic standing.
  • The dean may, in extenuating circumstances, waive any of the foregoing regulations governing eligibility to re-enroll for an individual student.

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Internship Eligibility

In order to participate in an internship, a student must be in good academic standing (not on probation) and have completed at least one semester of college coursework after graduation from high school.

Career Placement

Employment opportunities in the various disciplines of the liberal arts vary greatly. Departments in the college have information available describing employment opportunities. The MU Career Center in the Student Success Center offers students a variety of career planning services.

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Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps (AFROTC)

The AFROTC provides the opportunity to become a United States Air Force officer while completing a college degree. The program combines traditional undergraduate education with military instruction in preparation for Air Force leadership challenges. Each semester academic AFROTC classes will build a foundation for application to a two-hour Leadership Lab. Scholarships are available. Visit www.afrotc.com for the most current information. After graduating from college and successfully completing all AFROTC requirements, cadets receive a commission as as second lieutenant with an obligation of four years of service in the active duty Air Force. Pilots incur a ten-year commitment from the date of graduation from pilot training. A few additional career fields require a six or eight year commitment.

MU also offers a Minor in Aerospace Studies.

For additional information contact:

Department of Aerospace Studies
217 Crowder Hall
(573) 882-7621
airforce.missouri.edu

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Army Reserve Officer Training Corps (AROTC)

Army ROTC is a college elective program that teaches the skills needed to succeed in the Army or the corporate world. Students combine classroom time with hands-on experience and learn leadership and management skills. The experience of Army ROTC provides the confidence needed to excel in college and beyond. The Army ROTC program can be completed through a two- to four-year program designed to develop young men and women into junior commissioned officers in the Active Army, Army Reserve, or Army National Guard. In addition to traditional combat roles, Army officers serve in such professional fields as aviation, medical service, finance, personnel management, communications and engineering. MU also offers a Minor in Military Science.

For additional information contact:

Department of Military Science and Leadership
202 Crowder Hall
(573)-882-7721
http://armyrotc.missouri.edu/

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The College of Arts and Science is home to a broad spectrum of disciplines that prepare graduate students for challenging and rewarding careers. Our faculty mentors are known for both research and teaching excellence and many have received national acclaim for discoveries, disciplinary leadership, creative works and music or theater performance.

The School of Music, housed within the College, offers masters degrees, a doctoral degrees and a graduate certificate in jazz studies. Music education degrees are offered in conjunction with the College of Education, Department of Learning, Teaching and Curriculum.

Note: Prospective graduate students must apply to both the degree program of interest and to the Graduate School. In most cases, the entire application process may be completed online. Find admission and application details by selecting the degree program of interest in the left navigation column.